A Pest is any living organism which causes economic injury and nuisance to human beings.
Pests include animals which: carry disease, attack and eat vegetable and cereal crops, damage stored food, damage clothing, damage buildings, bite people, etc. There are thousands of different kinds of pests which are harmful to humans. The great majority of these are types of insect.
Insects evolved on planet earth few hundred millions of years before mankind when humans arrived around 2 million years ago. Insects had already evolved into all of their present forms.
Cockroaches are considered to be one of the worst household pests because the contaminate food with their excrement and secrete an unpleasant odour which can permeate the indoor environment. The Cockroaches are the most common pests in the homes, restaurants, hotels & offices. They do not discriminate between food and filth. Their small body size helps them to hide in tiny crack and crevice. Their presence is not only annoying but also unhygienic due to their stinking body secretion. They not only contaminate food and utensils but also take active part in the spread of disease causing organisms leading to dysentery, diarrhea and salmonellosis (food poisoning). The cockroaches are positively linked to human allergens leading to asthma. Cockroaches impart dark stains and unpleasant odours to the surfaces they frequent, giving impression of unhygienic conditions.
The termites are also called as “white ants“. These are social insects living in a colony comprising Queen, King, workers and soldiers. The colonies of subterranean termites are located in the soil. Their basic food being anything containing cellulose, in search of food they gain entry into the buildings. Each termite colony has millions of individual members. The tiny cream-colored worker termites invade buildings and cause damage to structure often long before they are discovered. They consume and damage all types of wood, paper, hardboards, books, clothes etc. In search of food they also damage leather, rubber, electrical wire coating, nylon, neoprene, thermocol practically everything man cherish to won. They enter the buildings through foundation, expansion joints, lift wells, utility ducting such as electrical, telephone cables or tunneling through cracks in the walls. They also construct mud tubes for their movement, which is a first sign of presence of termites. They have ability to travel long distance in search of food. It is common to see termites in top floors of multistory buildings.
The term rodents implies to Rats, Mice and Bandicoots. The rodents have become one of the most important urban pests. With the sole exception of man, the most successful and abundant mammals on the earth today are the commensally Rats and Mice. They enjoyed this success with mans in advent help. They live at man’s expense, invading his home, eating his food and damaging his commodities. They are also responsible for transmitting various diseases to man. They contaminate his food with their faces, urine and hairs. Their gnawing ability is responsible for not only structural and property damage but also short circuits and fires. They nibble at few cables and entire commutation or computer network collapses. Man regarded rodents as little more then household, Pets until he realized the damage potential of the rodents. In reality man’s indifference, ignorance and lack of attention to sanitation helped rodent population and made their control a tougher task.
Mosquito adults are small flying insects pose major threat to mankind due to there active participation in transmitting vector borne diseases. There are several spices that readily attack or bite people result in itching, swelling, restlessness, loss of sleep. Some species are capable of transmitting disease such as malaria, filarial, encephalitis, DENGUE, etc.
Bed bugs are the common pest of man, his domestic animals and various other mammals. The sole food of bed bugs is blood from warm-blooded animals. Human are the preferred hosts for the common bed bugs but they will feed readily on other animals such as poultry, mice, rats, canaries, dogs, bats, guineapigs etc. Normally they feed at night however they also feed in day light hours in places such as theaters, offices, rest rooms passenger transport vehicles etc.
Bed Bugs give off a distinct adour. They are active bloodsuckers; their bites cause welts and irritations to many people. Many people develop an allergic reaction to the saliva injected by bed bugs as it feeds. The bitten spot usually swells and swelling may be severe in highly sensitive individuals.
The House flies are well-known cosmopolitan pests of Farm & Home. This insect is always found in association with Humans or activities of humans. They are not only a nuisance, but can also spread desease.These pests breed in animal wastes and decaying organic material from which they can pick up bacteria and viruses that may cause human diseases.